Investment Institute
Asset Class Views

How pension schemes might consider stagflation risks

  • 13 July 2023 (5 min read)

Key points:

  • Stagflation is a rare but troubling phenomenon which pension schemes will be closely watching given central bank efforts to tame inflation without damaging growth
  • The current environment provides several potential implications for funding ratios and hedging strategies
  • Pension investors might consider high-quality and long duration bonds as the interest rate cycle continues and keep a keen eye on liquidity risks

There is an economic scenario that pension funds perhaps fear the most, but for which most are probably least prepared: Stagflation. Most schemes have a strategic asset allocation based on a relatively optimistic “goldilocks” scenario. One could argue stagflation’s heady combination of accelerating prices and meager growth remains an economic rarity through history.

This is an unusual moment, however. It would be understandable if investors worried that central bank efforts to control inflation – while limiting recessionary risks – could lead to missteps that make stagflation a genuine danger in developed markets.

Over the past month, central banks in the US and Europe have confirmed that they do not expect to end the current cycle of interest rate hikes as they battle to address stubbornly high core inflation. Headline inflation is rolling over, and core is expected to follow soon. But, it is not a given (or even appear likely) that core prices – which strip out more volatile elements – will fall as rapidly as the headline numbers.

Monetary policy in Europe is still loose, global fiscal spending is stimulative, and labor markets are tight. AXA IM’s central scenario is for global GDP growth to slow to 2.7% in 2023 from 3.4% in 2022 and to 0.4% from 3.6% in the Eurozone – and it is currently unclear if recessions can be avoided while attempting to kill inflation.

Seeking protection

High price rises and slowing growth are a double-edged sword for pension funds. Scheme liabilities will immediately increase with inflation through indexation mechanisms afforded to members. This leads to an immediate decline of the funding ratio – a scheme’s balance between available assets and liabilities. However, this time around, it is accompanied by higher interest rates, which on the balance, might be supportive for the funding ratio.

Over the longer term, slower growth may deliver impacts through lower profit margins and lower equity prices and would, in turn, depress funding ratios, too. If the current environment develops into a stagflation scenario, with a wage-price spiral and declining profit margins, then the funding ratios of pension funds may be hit hard – but the spending power of retirees would be hit even harder. It is a scenario schemes might protect themselves against, but not at all costs.

How to deal with these uncertainties is partly dependent on a fund’s current position i.e., the funding ratio level; the ability to raise pension contributions; whether inflation indexation is capped or not, and so on.1 Nevertheless, pension funds can take a closer look at their ability to protect themselves against inflation strategically.

Liquidity a factor

One potential possibility may come with reducing the scale of any interest rate hedging strategy, to potentially stave off further losses if interest rates increase further. Over the long run, underhedged liabilities have the potential to reduce vulnerability to increasing inflation and interest rates. Unless, of course, investors think we are at a peak in rate levels now, in that case they may opt to keep a hedge in place. 

In the near term, however, we do expect more rate hikes by central banks and see relative potential in long-duration bonds. In that spectrum, high-quality bonds, selected investment-grade corporate bonds, and sovereign, supranational, and agency bonds may fair better than higher yielding bonds, which may be more sensitive to an economic downturn.

Inflation-linked bonds have shown a relative high correlation with unexpected inflation in the past but potentially look expensive now.2 It’s worth noting, however, that real rates are in positive territory – in fact at historically high levels – and therefore may decline going forward. It is not yet clear if we might see recession in developed markets, or how deep it might be, but the possibility brings the risk of spread widening at higher interest rate levels.

In this uncertain environment, it is understandable that riskier and illiquid assets are not currently in favor with pension plans. Managing liquidity is key, as became clear with the so-called ”liability-driven investment (LDI) crisis” in the UK last year in October.3 Pension funds are generally still over-allocated to illiquid assets, and we expect this will continue well into 2024 given the difficult task of exiting such strategies.

Core inflation is falling slowly as labor markets remain tight. Growth is better than feared but subdued in developed markets. Longer-term rates project to rise as short-term policy rate views grow more hawkish. Spreads could widen further as we lock in higher interest rate levels.

All things considered, we think that investment-grade credits show more potential than high yielding bonds, and long-duration might hold some appeal. Inflation-linked bonds have become a trickier call, even if it may still be sensible to build in more protection against inflation in strategic asset allocation – but this is a fragile moment likely to reward thoughtfulness over haste.


[1] Philips pension fund caps indexation at 4% to protect buffer, IPE, June 2023

[2] Source: AXA IM as of July 2023

[3] Reuters (11/15/2023): LDI crisis shows need for investment fund 'death plans' - UK regulator

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Risk Warning:

Investment involves risk including the loss of capital.

The information has been established on the basis of data, projections, forecasts, anticipations and hypothesis which are subjective. This analysis and conclusions are the expression of an opinion, based on available data at a specific date. Due to the subjective aspect of these analyses, the effective evolution of the economic variables and values of the financial markets could be significantly different for the projections, forecast, anticipations and hypothesis which are communicated in this material.

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